Western Association for Biofeedback and Neuroscience — Spring 2017 43 rect the problem. As Ryan made progress with Dr. Brucker, he was able to introduce the same techniques into his physical therapy to help bring back his mental functions. Ryan went from being a hopeless case in 2005 to being a karate student in 2006, going on to earn his black belt in 2012. Grove observed that, despite documented success and cases such as Ryan’s, biofeedback and neurofeedback are still considered experimental by much of the medical community. The last pioneer Grove honored was Jeff Cram, who liked to be called a “holistic psy- chologist.” Cram wrote over 20 hardware and software programs on sEMG scanning, as well as articles that focused on four sources of chronic muscle dysfunction: 1) tissue dysfunctions (i.e., trigger points and joint problems), 2) emotional dysfunctions (i.e., autonomic involvement) where the clinician should try to resolve the emotional overlay before working on muscle restorative care, 3) movement dysfunctions (i.e., disuse and overuse syndromes, and weakness/spasticity issues) where the clinician should focus on left-right muscle pairs balancing and emphasize muscle asymmetry, and 4) mechani- cal repetitive strain injury (RSI), posture dysfunctions (i.e., muscle substitution issues and dysponesis issues) where the clinician’s goal is to use EMG to teach patients to re- lax non-target muscle groups and increase awareness of dysponetic habits, such as jaw clenching, eye squinting, and fist clenching, to name just a few. Grove reminded the au- dience that unlike biofeedback, which focuses on various forms of stress management, sEMG is a technical field; the contributions of Stevens, Brucker and Cram improved the field of rehabilitation by opening the doors for new generations of professionals in applied neuroscience. Presentation: NeuroField Treatment of ANS Deregulation in Trauma Presenter: Candia Smith, DMH Student reviewer: Alexa Carter Candia Smith, DMH, led an interactive discussion on treating autonomic nervous sys- tem (ANS) deregulation in patients who have experienced trauma. She presented the QEEG of one of her patients who had experienced trauma, showing where the brain was over- and under-activated. She then described which types of treatments work best with trauma: EMDR, NFD, and EEG. She also explained which frequencies of EEG are best at activating the ANS properly. She explained how to integrate HRV data, like baseline SDNN, to determine the individual’s heart muscle strength, in order to safely activate the individual based on cardiac and ANS functioning. An EEG cap and cuffs were placed on a volunteer at the locations where Dr. Smith has had the most success in reducing trauma symptoms. Despite technical difficulties, this was very helpful in providing a visual aid along with the verbal explanation. Finally, Dr. Smith outlined her