Western Association for Biofeedback and Neuroscience — Spring 2017 42 cal procedures, behavioral healthcare providers can work to reduce presurgical anxiety and help rule out the psychiatric pain generator. This allows for increased presurgical behavioral preparation, thus adding to the improvement in surgical outcomes for many patients. Presentation: Neuroscience, Movement-derived EMG Biofeedback & Self Regula- tion: Tributes to Jeff Cram, Bernie Brucker & Jennifer Stephens Presenter: Robert Grove, PhD Student reviewer: Lucia Foster-Engen, MA, BCB During his workshop Dr. Grove paid tribute to three important pioneers in the field of Surface Electromyography(sEMG) biofeedback: Jennifer Stephens, Jeff Cram, and Bernie Bricker. Stephens was an instructor and therapist at the Biofeedback Insti- tute of Los Angeles, and her main focus was in pelvic floor training for urinary inconti- nence. The treatment consisted of an invasive pelvic sEMG Kegel that was designed to help improve strength in the pubococcygeus muscle by teaching the patient to inhibit abdominal squeeze. Grove reported that Stephens’ clients did not want to use the in- vasive probes, and she began testing non-invasive alternate placements of the sEMG that would allow her clients to strengthen the pubococcygeus muscle by using a cross- leg sensor as a pelvic floor monitor. This would teach the clients to inhibit leg contrac- tions first, then inhibit abdominal squeeze. At Grove’s suggestion, Stephens added the mean and median spectral display derived from the live sEMG spectrum and allowed a real-time estimate of local fatigue. By adding an index of pelvic muscle fatigue-resis- tance, Stephens was able to identify signs of local muscle fatigue, inflammation, and/or weakness. Stephens’ successful use of non-invasive sEMG inspired new developments of devices, such as the e-stim that utilizes leg contraction inhibition and the abdominal inhibition as well. Next, Grove introduced Bernie Brucker’s work with spinal cord injury. Brucker de- veloped a proprietary program that helped patients two years post-injury regain neuro- logical function in areas two levels below the injury, and for patients five years post-in- jury, there were documented cases of regain in areas way below. Some patients were even able to learn how to walk. Grove shared a video that described the case of Ryan, a man who sustained a traumatic brain injury and was told he could never walk again. Brucker’s intervention was to place three electrodes on the targeted muscle group; the patient learned how to separate the activity of different muscles in the target area and send the correct signal to the muscle. The intervention allowed the patient to visual- ize his problem areas in a way he could not understand before (the process allowed his brain to “see” the problem), and after a while the brain was able to rewire itself to cor-