Western Association for Biofeedback and Neuroscience — Spring 2017 15 Conceptual Aspects of Alpha-Theta Faster frequency brainwave states are associated with arousal, cognitive pro- cessing, and focus on the external world. It has been suggested that alpha brain- wave activity may serve as a bridge from the external world to the internal world (and vice versa), and that theta waves are more predominant with increased inter- nal focus. In general, slower brainwave activity is associated with more subdued and meditative states, and can foster and maintain a greater sense of well-being. An analysis of meditative states indicated that different meditative practices were primarily associated with increased am- plitude of alpha, theta, or a combination of alpha and theta brainwaves (Kaur and Singh, 2015). During alpha-theta neurofeedback ses- sions, as an individual learned to increase alpha and theta brainwaves, there was an observed phenomenon called the theta-al- pha crossover that became the subject of interest and controversy. A theta-alpha crossover occurred when theta activity would rise and cross over the alpha for a period of time in which theta would become the dominant spectral activity. Individuals often reported the emergence of spontaneous emotionally salient ma- terial in the form of images or memories that seemed to be associated with a win- dow of access that would occur during this highly luminous state. This author and colleagues (2013) reported on requi- site parameters of the crossover for it to be considered “therapeutic.” Further, it was noted that the presence of addition- al spectral activity could be indicative of different types of imagery (e.g. – hypna- gogic, biographical, perinatal, and tran- spersonal) that was thought to possibly be associated with therapeutic outcomes (Johnson, Bodenhamer-Davis, Bailey, & Gates, 2013). SMR and Beta Training, and Cognition Gruzelier, Hirst, Holmes, and Leach (2014) pointed out that although al- pha-theta training may not be specific to performance behaviors (theoretically alpha training may be related to internal processing states), sensory-motor rhythm (SMR) training can improve attention and memory associated with performanc- es-based behaviors such as musical abil- ities. Gruzelier (2014) reviewed the lit- erature on neurofeedback and creativity, noting that making the protocol contex- tually and ecologically match to, or based on, the performance-based behavior or skill set can enhance the cognitive aspects of the performance (creativity to paint) or optimize targeted performance-based behavior (playing music or hitting a baseball). Researchers also found that al- pha-theta protocols improve creativity of the performance-based behavior. Researchers note that increasing mod- erately fast wave activity while simultane- ously decreasing slow wave activity can have beneficial effects on performance. For instance, studies have shown that by increasing 10-12 Hz or 20 Hz while performing a task, focus and cognitive efficiency improve, which can translate to making fewer errors (Freeman, Mikulka, Prinzel, & Scerbo, 1999); Prinzel, Pope, & Freeman, 2002). Table 1 summarizes the different cog- nitive domains as they relate to perfor-