Western Association for Biofeedback and Neuroscience — Spring 2017 13 research of these individuals established the association between EEG activity and alterations in states of consciousness and was found to be applicable to a variety of disorders. Traditionally, alpha-theta training has been applied to clinical conditions. For more than 20 years, alpha-theta brain- wave biofeedback (neurofeedback) was used successfully to treat anxiety, PTSD, and alcoholism (Peniston & Kulkosky, 1989; Peniston & Kulkosky, 1990; Sax- by & Peniston, 1995) and post-trau- matic stress disorder (PTSD) (Peniston & Kulkosky, 1991; Peniston, Marrinan, Deming & Kulkowski, 1993). The use of neurofeedback (including alpha-theta training) to treat alcoholism and its ac- companying symptoms (e.g., depression) was given a “Level 3 Efficacy (Probably Efficacious)” rating (Yucca & Gilbert, 2004). The use of neurofeedback to treat PTSD was given a Level 2 “Possibly Effi- cacious” rating, and a study was cited in which Vietnam veterans with combat-re- lated post-traumatic stress disorder were compared to individuals who underwent traditional medical treatment (Peniston & Kulkosky, 1991). Those who received traditional care showed decreases on the MMPI scale for Schizophrenia. In con- trast, individuals who received 30 sessions of alpha-theta brain-wave neurofeedback showed decreases in MMPI scores that included scales labeled Hypochondriasis, Depression, Hysteria, Psychopathic De- viate, Masculinity-Femininity, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Hypoma- nia, and Social Introversion-Extraver- sion. A 30-month follow-up assessment revealed that all of the patients in the traditional care group had relapsed back to their prescribed psychotropic medica- tions. In contrast, only three of the fifteen individuals who received neurofeedback relapsed. More recently, alpha-theta training has been applied to performance and creativ- ity/artistic abilities. Research supports the use of neurofeedback for enhancing performing arts. Gruzelier and his col- leagues have spearheaded this domain mainly in the last few years. Gruzelier and colleagues (respectively) have reported on multiple studies that have shown perfor- mance enhancements using alpha-theta neurofeedback. Reported outcomes have included increased cognitive creativi- ty among young contemporary dancers (2012), improved music performance and attentional measures of school children in school music performances (2014), and enhanced creativity/musicality, tech- nique, and communication presentation amongst novice university instrumental- ists/vocalists (2014). Alpha-theta neurofeedback has also been used for personal growth (Boynton, 2001; Norris & Curriere, 1999). Boyn- ton reported on the use of alpha-theta neurofeedback for enhancing creativity and well-being, noting that participants reported increased creativity, reduced stress, increased self-awareness, emotion- al equanimity, and better work perfor- mance. Gruzelier’s 2014 study also re- ported improvements in children’s reports of an increased perception of “well-being” (Gruzelier et al., 2014). continued on page 15