Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42California Biofeedback — Fall 2016 11 as motor speed; or practice patterns / environmental factors such as lack of fa- miliarity with the task may be at the heart of the suboptimal performance. Again, the astute psychophysiological specialist’s ability to rule-out external non-perfor- mance related factors also plays a major role in narrowing down the real issues un- derlying suboptimal performance. Figure 4. Psychophysiology specialists have ex- ceptional skills and tools to help clients, such as athletes or musicians, define health and performance in a unique, quantifiable manner. The key to individ- ual performance is being able to assess, analyze, and training the physiologic re- sponse in a biopsychosocial context. Such tools can include EMG, HRV, EEG, and reaction time measures and feedback. The following will cover peripheral biofeed- back applications as it relates to perfor- mance. EEG applications will be covered in an upcoming second part to this paper. Although the following is not meant to be an exhaustive review, the subsequent sections are some examples of research studies that evaluate the utilization of bio- feedback. Biofeedback and Performance HRV is one tool that shows promising results for the athlete/musician and yields real-time data of performance. By exam- ining the inter-beat intervals or HRV, we get a good sense of what effects a specific stressor or performance-based behavior is having on the client’s body (Makivic et al., 2013; Montano et al., 2009). Whether it’s through the client’s response to exercise, stress, or recovery, HRV has been shown to be a key measure to understanding per- formance, health, and wellness (Makivic et al., 2013; Montano et al., 2009).  For instance, Paul and Garg, (2012) conducted a randomized control trial us- ing HRV biofeedback for baseball players. They showed improvements in attention/ concentration and reaction time as a re- sult of HRV training. Other experimental and review studies show similar findings. An example of this is how HRV training has been shown to improve motor per- formance as well as to decrease anxiety in athletes (Paul, Garg, & Singh Sandhu, 2012; Prinsloo, Rauch, & Derma, 2014). Other modalities of biofeedback not only enhance performance but also pre- vent physical injury. EMG is highly uti- lized in neuromuscular training, athletic training, and music performance. EMG auditory feedback has been shown to im- prove real-time performance of muscle activity and to prevent physical injuries. These have included prevention of anteri- or cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries; over- strain of ligaments; and muscle groups that are excessively used during the per- formance-based behaviors (Kiefer, et al., 2015). Utilizing performance markers with