Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42California Biofeedback — Fall 2016 10 show one ideal and two suboptimal per- formance patterns. Figure 2 shows a hypothetical depic- tion of a physiological recording (e.g., EMG, HRV, or Galvanic Skin Response) of an athlete hitting a baseball or a mu- sician strumming a guitar (i.e., targeted performance-based behavior). This fig- ure shows a normal level of physiological baseline and a normal anticipatory re- sponse. As seen in the anticipatory phase (Ant), physiological arousal increases slightly immediately prior to the stressor/ performance phase (Stress), which indi- cates that the performer is getting ready to perform. This is followed by the stress phase, where the person is actually per- forming, which shows a moderate level of arousal. This yields optimal results to perform without over or under exertion (i.e., over- or under-arousal). Lastly, the individual exhibits the ability to return back to baseline, which suggests that the individual has good self-regulation abili- ties to rest and recover. Figure 2. Figure 3 illustrate a hypothetical sub- optimal performance, whereby the indi- vidual has a similar pre- and post-baseline as depicted in Figure 2, but has an ele- vated anticipatory response, which rep- resents increased arousal to the degree in which the individual’s physiological sys- tem is overloaded with anxiety and stress, and therefore cannot perform the targeted performance-based behavior during the stressor/performance phase. Here, there is a lack of, or suboptimal ability, to per- form (i.e., hit the baseball or strum the guitar). This tells the specialist that cog- nitive factors, such as catastrophizing, di- chotomous (e.g., all-or-none thinking), or perfectionistic traits, may be at the heart of the suboptimal performance. Of course with inquiry, the astute psychophysiology specialist can illuminate such cognitive factors to the performer. Figure 3. Figure 4 depicts a hypothetical sec- ond suboptimal performance, whereby the individual does not prepare to hit the baseball or strum the guitar. That is, there is no anticipatory response to increase arousal to a healthy level in order to pre- pare for the targeted performance-based behavior. In this situation, the person’s performance is delayed. In other words, there is a lag between “when they need to perform” and “when they actually per- form.” In this situation, neurocognitive factors such as inattention or slow infor- mation processing; physical factors such