Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42California Biofeedback — Fall 2016 9 ing. As specialists in psychophysiology, we understand that this optimal state can be trained (Ericsson, 2007). We are in a unique position to quantify the unseen physiological activities and demonstrate clearly to the client his/her performance in an objective and goal-directed manner. Psychophysiology specialists are diverse in their scope of practice (e.g., psychologists, marriage and family therapists, physical therapist, physicians, occupational ther- apists, nurses, and coaches) but all aim and possess the ability to help individuals improve their lives and enhance function through their specialized knowledge. Adopting a multidimensional ap- proach to performance can help the spe- cialist take the first step in enhancing his/ her client’s performance and functional abilities (Garland and Barry, 1990). For example, the biopsychosocial approach is particularly helpful to identify cognitive, affective, physiological, sociocultural, and behavioral/environmental factors that im- pact both the chronic condition and per- formance/function variables (Ramezani, McCarron, Lashai, and Lenaerts, 2015). Performance variables to consider include diet, sleep, cognitive and behavioral strat- egies, beliefs/ appraisal of self and others, appraisal of performance, psychological efficacy, and physiological regulation as well as root motivators (Damrosh, 1991). Emotional and physiological regulation abilities are particularly important factors to identify as they directly relate to per- formance anxiety. See Figure 1 for a list of variables that have an impact on perfor- mance. Effectively integrating these multidi- mensional variables in a programmatic/ systematic manner can help the client re- ceive a comprehensive approach to well- ness and performance. Doing so can also create lasting behavior change that posi- tively influences an individual’s targeted performance-based behavior (e.g. sports performance, artistic performance, or translating creativity/divergent thinking into writing etc.). Figure 1. Psychophysiological Assessment and Performance The traditional psychophysiologi- cal assessment (PPA) profile can help us translate psychophysiological principles and patterns of stress response into un- derstanding different patterns of perfor- mance. Utilizing the PPA pre-baseline phase, anticipatory phase, stressors/per- formance phase, and post-baseline phase measures can yield profiles that assist in interpreting the client’s athletic or musi- cal performance capabilities and deficits (Arena & Schwartz, 2003; Sandweiss & Wolf, 1985). The following figures are simplified illustrations of PPA principles as they relate to performance. The fol- lowing figures are also three profiles that